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Bioaccumulation of metals in fish species from water and sediments in macrotidal Ennore creek, Chennai, SE coast of India: A metropolitan city effect

Jayaprakash, M., Kumar, R. Senthil, Giridharan, L., Sujitha, S.B., Sarkar, S.K., Jonathan, M.P.
Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 2015 v.120 pp. 243-255
Arius, Etroplus suratensis, Gerres, Liza, Oreochromis mossambicus, Sillago, bioaccumulation factor, cadmium, chromium, coasts, cobalt, copper, fish, intestines, iron, lead, liver, manganese, monitoring, muscles, nickel, risk, rivers, sediments, streams, surface water, zinc, India
Accumulation of trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn, Cd) were investigated in water, sediment (n=20) along with six fish of diverse feeding guilds (Sillago sihama, Liza parsia, Etroplus suratensis, Oreochromis mossambicus, Arius parkii and Gerres oyena) from the Ennore creek, northern part of Chennai metropolitan megacity, southeast coast of India. Dissolved trace metals (DTMs) in surface water samples and total trace metals (TTMs) in surface sediments (top 0–10cm) indicate that concentration pattern of metals was higher in the discharge point of the river/channels entering the main creek. The maximum mean values of DTMs exhibited the following decreasing order (expressed in µg/L): Fe (1698)>Mn (24)>Zn (14.50)>Pb (13.89)>Ni (6.73)>Cu (3.53)>Co (3.04)>Cr (2.01) whereas the trend is somewhat different in sediments (µgg−1): Fe (4300)>Mn (640)>Cr (383)>Zn (155)>Cu (102)>Ni (35)>Pb (32)>Cd (0.51) are mainly due to the industrial complexes right on the banks of the river/channels. Species-specific heterogeneous patterns of tissue metal loads were apparent and the overall metal enrichment exhibited the following decreasing order (expressed in µgg−1): Cu (7.33)>Fe (6.53)>Zn (4.91)>Cr (1.67)>Pb (1.33)>Ni (0.44)>Mn (0.43)>Co (0.36)>Cd (0.11). This indicates that metals are absorbed onto the different organs, which is also endorsed by the calculated values of bioaccumulation factor (BAFs) (avg. muscle 117, gill 126, liver 123, intestine 118) in fishes. The high calculated biota sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) (0.437) for the species Arius parkii is considered to be a potential bioindicator in this region. The enrichment of trace metals is also supported by the association of metals in water, sediments and different body organs (muscle, gill, liver, intestine) of fish samples. Comparative studies with other coastal regions indicate considerable enrichment of DTMs & TTMs in sediments as well as in various organs of fish samples. Holistic spatial, temporal monitoring and comprehensive regional strategies are required to prevent health risks and ensure nutritional safety conditions.