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Biomarkers of environmental stress in gills of Pinna nobilis (Linnaeus 1758) from Balearic Island

Natalotto, Antonino, Sureda, Antoni, Maisano, Maria, Spanò, Nunziacarla, Mauceri, Angela, Deudero, Salud
Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 2015 v.122 pp. 9-16
Pinna nobilis, acetylcholinesterase, antioxidants, aquatic environment, biomarkers, catalase, environmental factors, enzyme activity, gills, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-disulfide reductase, hemocytes, humans, indicator species, national parks, oxidative stress, protein synthesis, superoxide dismutase
In aquatic environments, bivalve molluscs are used as sentinel species for environmental biomonitoring. In this study Pinna nobilis specimens, the biggest Mediterranean bivalve, were collected in the Magaluf bay (Mallorca), a touristic location and in a pristine area of the Cabrera National Park as the control location. Histological and histochemical analysis in gills of specimens sampled from Magaluf exhibited evident tissue alterations with high presence of haemocytes. Lower acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and protein expression were also found in the gills of specimens collected from Magaluf compared with the control area. The determination of antioxidant enzyme activities, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, showed a higher activities of these antioxidant enzymes and total glutathione content in samples from Magaluf bay than in Cabrera. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that human activities result in morphological tissue alterations and a reduced AChE activity in gills of P. nobilis. Moreover, these stressful environmental conditions induced an adaptive response in P. nobilis as evidenced by increased antioxidant defences and a decreased AChE activity.The human activities induce oxidative stress in P. nobilis as evidenced by increased antioxidant defences and a decreased acetylcholinesterase activity.