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Transcriptional expression levels and biochemical markers of oxidative stress in the earthworm Eisenia andrei after exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)
- Hattab, Sabrine, Boughattas, Iteb, Boussetta, Hamadi, Viarengo, Aldo, Banni, Mohamed, Sforzini, Susanna
- Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 2015 v.122 pp. 76-82
- 2,4-D, Eisenia andrei, biomarkers, body weight, catalase, cytotoxicity, earthworms, enzyme activity, genes, glutathione transferase, oxidative stress, soil, stress response, superoxide dismutase, transcription (genetics)
- This study investigated the stress response of earthworms (Eisenia andrei) to exposure to a commonly used herbicide, 2,4 dichloro-phenoxy-acetic acid (2,4-D). We evaluated both stress biomarkers and the transcriptional expression levels and activity of three enzymes involved in oxidative stress responses. Earthworms were exposed to three sublethal concentration of 2,4-D (3.5, 7, and 14mgkg−1) for 7 and 14 days. Exposure to 7 and 14mgkg−1 2,4-D significantly reduced both worm body weight and lysosomal membrane stability (LMS); the latter is a sensitive stress biomarker in coelomocytes. Exposure to 2,4-D caused a pronounced increase in the accumulation of malonedialdehyde (MDA), a marker of oxidative stress, and significantly increased the activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD),and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Compared to expression in controls, the expression levels of the sod, cat, and gst genes increased in worms exposed to all three 2,4-D doses for 7 days. However, after 14 days of exposure, only the expression of the gst gene remained higher than controls. These data provide new insights into the cytotoxicity of 2,4-D in the earthworm E. andrei and should be carefully considered in view of the biological effects of herbicides in soils organisms.