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Effects of water management practices on residue decomposition and degradation of Cry1Ac protein from crop-wild Bt rice hybrids and parental lines during winter fallow season

Xiao, Manqiu, Dong, Shanshan, Li, Zhaolei, Tang, Xu, Chen, Yi, Yang, Shengmao, Wu, Chunyan, Ouyang, Dongxin, Fang, Changming, Song, Zhiping
Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 2015 v.122 pp. 275-289
Bacillus thuringiensis, Oryza rufipogon, Oryza sativa, aerobic conditions, carbon, cowpeas, cultivars, diet, drainage, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, genes, hybrids, leaves, protein degradation, proteins, rice soils, roots, soil ecosystems, stems, transgenic plants, trypsin inhibitors, water management, wild rice
Rice is the staple diet of over half of the world's population and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice expressing insecticidal Cry proteins is ready for deployment. An assessment of the potential impact of Bt rice on the soil ecosystem under varied field management practices is urgently required. We used litter bags to assess the residue (leaves, stems and roots) decomposition dynamics of two transgenic rice lines (Kefeng6 and Kefeng8) containing stacked genes from Bt and sck (a modified CpTI gene encoding a cowpea trypsin inhibitor) (Bt/CpTI), a non-transgenic rice near-isoline (Minghui86), wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) and crop-wild Bt rice hybrid under contrasting conditions (drainage or continuous flooding) in the field. No significant difference was detected in the remaining mass, total C and total N among cultivars under aerobic conditions, whereas significant differences in the remaining mass and total C were detected between Kefeng6 and Kefeng8 and Minghui86 under the flooded condition. A higher decomposition rate constant (km) was measured under the flooded condition compared with the aerobic condition for leaf residues, whereas the reverse was observed for root residues. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which was used to monitor the changes in the Cry1Ac protein in Bt rice residues, indicated that (1) the degradation of the Cry1Ac protein under both conditions best fit first-order kinetics, and the predicted DT50 (50% degradation time) of the Cry1Ac protein ranged from 3.6 to 32.5 days; (2) the Cry1Ac protein in the residue degraded relatively faster under aerobic conditions; and (3) by the end of the study (~154 days), the protein was present at a low concentration in the remaining residues under both conditions. The degradation rate constant was negatively correlated with the initial carbon content and positively correlated with the initial Cry1Ac protein concentration, but it was only correlated with the mass decomposition rate constants under the flooded condition. No Cry1Ac protein was detected in the soils surrounding the buried residue. Our results did not reveal any evidence that the stacked genes (Bt/CpTI) or the presence of the Cry1Ac protein influenced the decomposition dynamics of the rice residues. Furthermore, our results suggested that field drainage after residue incorporation would promote Cry1Ac protein degradation.