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Histopathological changes in snail, Pomacea canaliculata, exposed to sub-lethal copper sulfate concentrations

Dummee, Vipawee, Tanhan, Phanwimol, Kruatrachue, Maleeya, Damrongphol, Praneet, Pokethitiyook, Prayad
Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 2015 v.122 pp. 290-295
Pomacea canaliculata, acute toxicity, aquatic environment, bioaccumulation, biomarkers, cilia, copper, copper sulfate, digestive tract, epithelium, esophagus, exposure duration, histopathology, lethal concentration 50, monitoring, mucus, muscles, rectum, snails
The acute toxicity test of Cu including range-finding and definitive test, was performed on golden apple snails, Pomacea canaliculata. The median lethal concentrations (LC50) of Cu at exposure times of 24, 48, 72 and 96h were 330, 223, 177 and 146µg/L, respectively. P. canaliculata were exposed to Cu at 146µg/L for 96h to study bioaccumulation and histopathological alterations in various organs. Snails accumulated elevated levels of Cu in gill, and lesser amounts in the digestive tract, muscle, and digestive gland. Histopathological investigation revealed several alterations in the epithelia of gill, digestive tract (esophagus, intestine, rectum), and digestive gland. The most striking changes were observed in the epithelium of the gill in which there was loss of cilia, an increase in number of mucus cells, and degeneration of columnar cells. Similar changes occurred in digestive tract epithelium. The digestive gland showed moderate alterations, vacuolization and degeneration of cells and an increase in the number of basophilic cells. We concluded that, P. canaliculata has a great potential as a bioindicator for Cu, and a biomarker for monitoring Cu contamination in aquatic environment.