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Temporal changes in dissolved 137Cs concentrations in groundwater and stream water in Fukushima after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident
- Iwagami, Sho, Tsujimura, Maki, Onda, Yuichi, Nishino, Masataka, Konuma, Ryohei, Abe, Yutaka, Hada, Manami, Pun, Ishwar, Sakaguchi, Aya, Kondo, Hiroaki, Yamamoto, Masayoshi, Miyata, Yoshiki, Igarashi, Yasuhito
- Journal of environmental radioactivity 2016
- canopy, cesium, earthquakes, forests, groundwater, half life, nuclear power, power plants, radionuclides, rain, soil, streams, temporal variation, throughfall, tsunamis, water flow, water table, watersheds
- The concentration of dissolved 137Cs in groundwater and stream water in the headwater catchments in Yamakiya district, located ∼35 km north west of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), was monitored from June 2011 to July 2013, after the earthquake and tsunami disaster. Groundwater and stream water were sampled at intervals of approximately 2 months at each site. Intensive sampling was also conducted during rainstorm events. Compared with previous data from the Chernobyl NPP accident, the concentration of dissolved 137Cs in stream water was low. In the Iboishi-yama catchment, a trend was observed for the concentration of dissolved 137Cs in stream water to decline, which could be divided into two phases by October 2011 (a fast flush of activity as a result of rapid washoff and a slow decline as a result of soil fixation and redistribution processes). The highest 137Cs concentration recorded at Iboishi-yama was 1.2 Bq/L on August 6, 2011, which then declined to 0.021–0.049 Bq/L during 2013 (in stream water under normal water-flow conditions). During the rainfall events, the concentration of dissolved 137Cs in stream water increased temporarily. The concentration of dissolved 137Cs in groundwater at a depth of 30 m at Iboishi-yama displayed a decreasing trend from 2011 to 2013, with a range from 0.039 Bq/L to 0.0025 Bq/L. The effective half-lives of stream water in the initial fast flush and secondary phases were 0.10–0.21 and 0.69–1.5 y, respectively in the three catchments. The effective half-life of groundwater was 0.46–0.58 y at Koutaishi-yama and 0.50–3.3 y at Iboishi-yama. The trend for the concentration of dissolved 137Cs to decline in groundwater and stream water was similar throughout 2012–2013, and the concentrations recorded in deeper groundwater were closer to those in stream water. The declining trend of dissolved 137Cs concentrations in stream water was similar to that of the loss of canopy 137Cs by throughfall, as shown in other reports of forest sites in the Yamakiya district.