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Mutual impacts of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and earthworms (Eisenia fetida) on the bioavailability of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in soil

Zhao, Shuyan, Fang, Shuhong, Zhu, Lingyan, Liu, Li, Liu, Zhengtao, Zhang, Yahui
Environmental pollution 2014 v.184 pp. 495-501
Eisenia fetida, Triticum aestivum, bioaccumulation factor, bioavailability, earthworms, perfluorocarbons, polluted soils, sulfonates, wheat
Wheat and earthworms were exposed individually and together to soils contaminated with 11 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Wheat accumulated PFASs from soil with root concentration factors and bioconcentration factors that decreased as the number of perfluorinated carbons in the molecule increased. Earthworms accumulated PFASs from soil with biota-to-soil accumulation factors that increased with the number of carbons. Translocation factors (TF) of perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) in wheat peaked at perfluorohexanoic acid and decreased significantly as the number of carbons increased or decreased. Perfluorohexane sulfonate produced the greatest TF of the three perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs) examined. Wheat increased the bioaccumulation of all 11 PFASs in earthworms and earthworms increased the bioaccumulation in wheat of PFCAs containing seven or less perfluorinated carbons, decreased bioaccumulation of PFCAs with more than seven carbons, and decreased bioaccumulation of PFSAs. In general, the co-presence of wheat and earthworms enhanced the bioavailability of PFASs in soil.