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CO2 dose–response functions for wheat grain, protein and mineral yield based on FACE and open-top chamber experiments

Pleijel, Håkan, Högy, Petra
Environmental pollution 2015 v.198 pp. 70-77
cadmium, carbon dioxide, dose response, free air carbon dioxide enrichment, grain yield, manganese, models, nitrogen, nutrients, wheat, zinc
Data from three Swedish open-top chamber and four German FACE experiments were combined to derive response functions for elevated CO2 (eCO2) effects on Cd, Zn, Mn, protein, grain yield, grain mass and grain number of wheat. Grain yield and grain number were increased by ∼6% and ∼7%, respectively, per 100 ppm CO2; the former effect was linked to plant nitrogen status. Grain mass was not influenced by eCO2, whereas Cd concentration was reduced. Unlike Zn, Mn and protein, effects on Cd yield were not related to effects on grain yield. Yields of Mn, Zn and (weakly) protein were positively affected by eCO2. For protein, grain yield, grain mass and grain number, the results were consistent among the FACE and OTC experiments. A key conclusion was that yields of essential nutrients were enhanced (Mn > Zn > protein), although less than grain yield, which would not be expected from a simple dilution model.