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Genotoxic and immunotoxic potential effects of selected psychotropic drugs and antibiotics on blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) hemocytes

Lacaze, Emilie, Pédelucq, Julie, Fortier, Marlène, Brousseau, Pauline, Auffret, Michel, Budzinski, Hélène, Fournier, Michel
Environmental pollution 2015 v.202 pp. 177-186
DNA, DNA damage, Mytilus edulis, aquatic environment, aquatic invertebrates, cytotoxicity, erythromycin, genotoxicity, hemocytes, immune system, immunomodulation, immunotoxicity, mechanism of action, metabolism, mussels, psychotropic agents, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim
The potential toxicity of pharmaceuticals towards aquatic invertebrates is still poorly understood and sometimes controversial. This study aims to document the in vitro genotoxicity and immunotoxicity of psychotropic drugs and antibiotics on Mytilus edulis. Mussel hemocytes were exposed to fluoxetine, paroxetine, venlafaxine, carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and erythromycin, at concentrations ranging from μg/L to mg/L. Paroxetine at 1.5 μg/L led to DNA damage while the same concentration of venlafaxine caused immunomodulation. Fluoxetine exposure resulted in genotoxicity, immunotoxicity and cytotoxicity. In the case of antibiotics, trimethoprim was genotoxic at 200 μg/L and immunotoxic at 20 mg/L whereas erythromycin elicited same detrimental effects at higher concentrations. DNA metabolism seems to be a highly sensitive target for psychotropic drugs and antibiotics. Furthermore, these compounds affect the immune system of bivalves, with varying intensity. This attests the relevance of these endpoints to assess the toxic mode of action of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment.