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Arsenic and fluoride contaminated groundwaters: A review of current technologies for contaminants removal
- Jadhav, Sachin V., Bringas, Eugenio, Yadav, Ganapati D., Rathod, Virendra K., Ortiz, Inmaculada, Marathe, Kumudini V.
- Journal of environmental management 2015 v.162 pp. 306-325
- adsorption, anthropogenic activities, aquifers, arsenic, chemical treatment, developing countries, encapsulation, fluorides, groundwater, groundwater contamination, groundwater recharge, ions, neoplasms, nitrates, phosphates, pollutants, sulfates, sustainable technology, water supply
- Chronic contamination of groundwaters by both arsenic (As) and fluoride (F) is frequently observed around the world, which has severely affected millions of people. Fluoride and As are introduced into groundwaters by several sources such as water–rock interactions, anthropogenic activities, and groundwater recharge. Coexistence of these pollutants can have adverse effects due to synergistic and/or antagonistic mechanisms leading to uncertain and complicated health effects, including cancer. Many developing countries are beset with the problem of F and As laden waters, with no affordable technologies to provide clean water supply. The technologies available for the simultaneous removal are akin to chemical treatment, adsorption and membrane processes. However, the presence of competing ions such as phosphate, silicate, nitrate, chloride, carbonate, and sulfate affect the removal efficiency. Highly efficient, low-cost and sustainable technology which could be used by rural populations is of utmost importance for simultaneous removal of both pollutants. This can be realized by using readily available low cost materials coupled with proper disposal units. Synthesis of inexpensive and highly selective nanoadsorbents or nanofunctionalized membranes is required along with encapsulation units to isolate the toxicant loaded materials to avoid their re-entry in aquifers. A vast number of reviews have been published periodically on removal of As or F alone. However, there is a dearth of literature on the simultaneous removal of both. This review critically analyzes this important issue and considers strategies for their removal and safe disposal.