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The removal of caesium ions using supported clinoptilolite

De Haro-Del Rio, D.A., Al-Joubori, S., Kontogiannis, O., Papadatos-Gigantes, D., Ajayi, O., Li, C., Holmes, S.M.
Journal of hazardous materials 2015 v.289 pp. 1-8
aqueous solutions, carbon, cesium, diffusivity, encapsulation, heat treatment, ions, mass transfer, models, process control, sorption, wastes, zeolites
In this paper, the sorptive kinetic and diffusional characteristics of caesium ion removal from aqueous solution by carbon-supported clinoptilolite composites are presented. Natural clinoptilolite was supported on carbonaceous scaffolds prepared from date stones. Thermal treatment was applied to produce voids in the carbon which was conditioned using polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride to facilitate the clinoptilolite attachment. This method allowed the formation of a consistent zeolite layer on the carbon surface. The composite was applied in the removal of non-radioactive caesium ions showing an enhanced uptake from 55mgg−1 to 120.9mgg−1 when compared to clinoptilolite. Kinetic studies using Pseudo First Order model revealed an enhanced rate constant for carbon–clinoptilolite (0.0252min−1) in comparison with clinoptilolite (0.0189min−1). The Pseudo-First Order model described the process for carbon–clinoptilolite, meanwhile Pseudo Second Order model adjusted better for pure clinoptilolite. Diffusivity results suggested that mass transfer resistances involved in the Cs+ sorption are film and intraparticle diffusion for natural clinoptilolite and intraparticle diffusion as the mechanism that controls the process for carbon–clinoptilolite composite. The most significant aspect being that the vitrified volume waste can be reduced by over 60% for encapsulation of the same quantity of caesium due to the enhanced uptake of zeolite.