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Transformation of organic matters in animal wastes during composting
- Wang, Ke, He, Chao, You, Shijie, Liu, Weijie, Wang, Wei, Zhang, Ruijun, Qi, Huanhuan, Ren, Nanqi
- Journal of hazardous materials 2015 v.300 pp. 745-753
- Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, amino acids, carbohydrates, carbon, cattle manure, chickens, composting, cows, fatty acids, fluorescent dyes, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, microorganisms, mineralization, nitrogen, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, phenols, pig manure, poultry manure, pyrolysis, staining, sulfur, swine
- The transformation of organic matters in swine, cow and chicken manures was compared and evaluated using elemental analysis, FTIR, 13C NMR, pyrolysis/GC/MS, Biolog and multiple fluorochrome over 60 days composting. The results revealed that cow manure exhibited the greatest C/N and aromaticity, whereas chicken manure exhibited the highest nitrogen and sulfur contents. O-alkyl-C was predominant carbon structure in the three manures. Alkyl-C and carboxyl-C were decomposed dramatically in initial 10 days, and mineralization of O-alkyl-C dominated the curing stage. During pyrolysis of chicken, cow, and swine manures, the majority products were fatty acids, phenols and cholestene derivatives, respectively, however, phenols and cholestene derivatives were strongly reduced in the mature manures. Furthermore, microorganisms in the raw cow, chicken and swine manure demonstrated the highest degradation capabilities for carbohydrates, lipids and amino acids, respectively. Spatial differences in the contents of solid organics in the manure particles were negligible through detection by multiple staining methods during composting.