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White Rice Consumption, Body Mass Index, and Waist Circumference among Iranian Female Adolescents

Azadbakht, Leila, Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh, Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad
Journal of the American College of Nutrition 2016 v.35 no.6 pp. 491-499
adolescents, body mass index, cross-sectional studies, dietary fiber, energy density, energy intake, females, food frequency questionnaires, food intake, nutritional adequacy, obesity, refined grains, rice, waist circumference, Iran
Objective : Refined grains consumption is positively associated with obesity. White rice is the most usual refined grain in Iran. However, few studies have assessed the association between rice intake and anthropometric measures among adolescents. Therefore, we aimed to compare anthropometric measures as well as the diet quality indices across the tertiles of white rice consumption among Iranian adolescents. Methods : This cross-sectional study was conducted on 415 female adolescents who were chosen by using a systematic cluster random sampling. Dietary intake assessment was done using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measures were done according to the standard protocols. Diet quality indices (including dietary energy density [DED], nutrient adequacy ratio [NAR], and mean adequacy ratio [MAR]) were calculated using standard definitions. Results : The prevalence of overweight across the tertiles of rice consumption was 11.6, 17.8, and 24.6%, respectively (p = 0.03). Corresponding values for obesity were 2.1, 5.7, and 8.6%, respectively (p = 0.04). A significant positive association was observed for the prevalence of central obesity across the tertile of rice intake (13.1, 21.4, and 28.1%; p = 0.02). Dietary fiber and energy intake and diet quality indices were significantly different among different tertiles of white rice intake. Those in the highest tertiles of white rice intake had the lowest scores for MAR and NAR and highest scores for DED. Conclusion : There was significant association between rice consumption and obesity as well as diet quality indices among Iranian adolescents.