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Analysis of low‐density lipoprotein‐associated proteins using the method of digitized native protein mapping

Jin, Ya, Chen, Jin, Wang, Ahui, Zhang, Jun, Chen, Shumin, Manabe, Takashi, Tan, Wen
Electrophoresis 2016 v.37 no.14 pp. 2063-2074
electrophoresis, gels, humans, low density lipoprotein, ultracentrifugation
The method of digitized native protein mapping, combining nondenaturing micro 2DE, grid gel‐cutting, and quantitative LC‐MS/MS (in data‐independent acquisition mode, or MSᴱ), was improved by using a new MS/MS mode, ion mobility separation enhanced‐MSᴱ (HDMSᴱ), and applied to analyze the area of human plasma low‐density lipoprotein (LDL). An 18 mm × 4.8 mm rectangular area which included LDL on a nondenaturing micro 2D gel of human plasma was grid‐cut into 72 square gel pieces and subjected to quantitative LC‐MS/MS. Compared with MSᴱ, HDMSᴱ showed significantly higher performance, by assigning 50% more proteins and detecting each protein in more squares. A total of 253 proteins were assigned with LC‐HDMSᴱ and the quantity distribution of each was reconstructed as a native protein map. The maps showed that Apo B‐100 was the most abundant protein in the grid‐cut area, concentrated at pI ca. 5.4–6.1 and apparent mass ca. 1000 kDa, which corresponded to four gel pieces, squares 39–42. An Excel macro was prepared to search protein maps which showed protein quantity peaks localized within this concentrated region of Apo B‐100. Twenty‐two proteins out of the 252 matched this criterion, in which 19 proteins have been reported to be associated with LDL. This method only requires several microliters of a plasma sample and the principle of the protein separation is totally different from the commonly used ultracentrifugation. The results obtained by this method would provide new insights on the structure and function of LDL.