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Oxidative Stress and Histological Alterations of Chicken Brain Induced by Oral Administration of Chromium(III)

Cheng, Jia, Fan, Wentao, Zhao, Xiaona, Liu, Yanhan, Cheng, Ziqiang, Liu, Yongxia, Liu, Jianzhu
Biological trace element research 2016 v.173 no.1 pp. 185-193
antioxidant activity, body weight, brain, catalase, chickens, chromium, drinking water, enzyme activity, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, hydrogen peroxide, lethal dose 50, males, malondialdehyde, neurons, oral administration, oxidative stress, superoxide dismutase
This experiment was conducted to investigate the oxidative stress in chickens exposed to different concentrations of chromium trichloride (CrCl₃) in drinking water. Seventy-two Hylan Brown male chickens were randomly divided into four groups: three experimental groups and one control group. The experimental groups were exposed to three different doses (50 % LD₅₀, 25 % LD₅₀, and 12.5 % LD₅₀) of CrCl₃ mg/kg body weight for 42 days, while the control group was given the equivalent water. The activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) and non-enzymatic index (glutathione, total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde, and hydrogen peroxide) were measured after obtaining the brain samples. Results suggested that 50 % LD₅₀ chromium(III) significantly increased (P < 0.05) the contents of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide. The antioxidant enzyme activities, total glutathione concentration, and total antioxidant capacity decreased significantly (P < 0.05) compared with those of the controls and were consistent with the increase in dosage and time. Additionally, extensive histological alterations were observed in the chicken brain, such as the vacuolization and nuclear condensation of the neurons. These results indicated that exposure to high-dose CrCl₃ for a certain time could induce the occurrence of oxidative stress and histological alterations.