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Effects of volatile organic compounds produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens on the growth and virulence traits of tomato bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum

Raza, Waseem, Wang, Jichen, Wu, Yuncheng, Ling, Ning, Wei, Zhong, Huang, Qiwei, Shen, Qirong
Applied microbiology and biotechnology 2016 v.100 no.17 pp. 7639-7650
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Ralstonia solanacearum, acids, agar, aldehydes, alkanes, antibacterial properties, antioxidants, bacterial wilt, biofilm, biological control, biological control agents, enzymes, exopolysaccharides, genes, growth retardation, ketones, microorganisms, naphthalene, plant pathogens, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, soil, soil sterilization, tomatoes, virulence, volatile organic compounds
The production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by microbes is an important characteristic for their selection as biocontrol agents against plant pathogens. In this study, we identified the VOCs produced by the biocontrol strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens T-5 and evaluated their impact on the growth and virulence traits of tomato bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. The results showed that the VOCs of strain T-5 significantly inhibited the growth of R. solanacearum in agar medium and in soil. In addition, VOCs significantly inhibited the motility traits, root colonization, biofilm formation, and production of antioxidant enzymes and exopolysaccharides by R. solanacearum. However, no effect of VOCs on the production of hydrolytic enzymes by R. solanacearum was observed. The strain T-5 produced VOCs, including benzenes, ketones, aldehydes, alkanes, acids, and one furan and naphthalene compound; among those, 13 VOCs showed 1–10 % antibacterial activity against R. solanacearum in their produced amounts by T-5; however, the consortium of all VOCs produced on agar medium, in sterilized soil, and in natural soil showed 75, 62, and 85 % growth inhibition of R. solanacearum, respectively. The real-time PCR analysis further confirmed the results when the expression of different virulence- and metabolism-related genes in R. solanacearum cells was decreased after exposure to the VOCs of strain T-5. The results of this study clearly revealed the significance of VOCs in the control of plant pathogens. This information would help to better comprehend the microbial interactions mediated by VOCs in nature and to develop safer strategies to control plant disease.