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Effects of different animal manures on attraction and reproductive behaviors of common house fly, Musca domestica L

Shah, Rizwan Mustafa, Azhar, Faheem, Shad, Sarfraz Ali, Walker, William B., III, Azeem, Muhammad, Binyameen, Muhammad
Parasitology research 2016 v.115 no.9 pp. 3585-3598
Musca domestica, adults, artificial diets, asses, cattle manure, cows, eggs, fecundity, headspace analysis, horse manure, horses, host preferences, imagos, insects, larval development, longevity, odors, oviposition, pest management, pests, poultry, poultry manure
Insects rely mainly on their well-developed and highly sophisticated olfactory system to discriminate volatile cues released from host and nonhost substances, mates, oviposition substrates, and food sources. Onset of first mating, mating duration, and onset of first oviposition, oviposition period, fecundity (number of eggs laid by a female), and longevity of freshly emerged Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) adults were observed in the presence of different animal manures: cow, horse, donkey, poultry, and an artificial diet. The M. domestica adults exposed to horse manure showed a delay in onset of first mating and first oviposition, prolonged mating duration, and reduced fecundity compared to the artificial diet (control). Likewise, the fecundity was reduced in the presence of donkey manure as compared to artificial diet. The onset of first mating was delayed and duration of first mating was shortened in the presence of cow manure as compared to artificial diet and no oviposition was observed throughout the duration of the experiment. However, the reproductive behaviors and all fitness measures in adults exposed to poultry manure were similar or even better, compared to the artificial diet. Surprisingly, in a free-choice attraction assay, the highest numbers of adult flies were attracted toward the cow manure as compared to all other manures as well as the artificial diet. However, the numbers of flies captured in all other types of manures were not different than the artificial diet (control). Furthermore, chemical analysis of headspace samples of manures revealed qualitative differences in odor (volatile) profiles of all manures and artificial diet, indicating that behavioral differences could be due to the differences in the volatile chemistry of the adult ovipositional substrates and larval growth mediums. This study may contribute toward both understanding the linkage between ecological adaptations and host selection mechanisms and the development of pest management strategies against this serious pest of medical and veterinary importance.