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Hypercapnia slows down proliferation and apoptosis of human bone marrow promyeloblasts
- Hamad, Mouna, Irhimeh, Mohammad R., Abbas, Ali
- Bioprocess and biosystems engineering 2016 v.39 no.9 pp. 1465-1475
- apoptosis, bone marrow, carbon dioxide, cell proliferation, cultured cells, flow cytometry, hematopoietic stem cells, humans, hypercapnia, surface antigens, therapeutics, viability
- Stem cells are being applied in increasingly diverse fields of research and therapy; as such, growing and culturing them in scalable quantities would be a huge advantage for all concerned. Gas mixtures containing 5 % CO₂ are a typical concentration for the in vitro culturing of cells. The effect of varying the CO₂ concentration on promyeloblast KG-1a cells was investigated in this paper. KG-1a cells are characterized by high expression of CD34 surface antigen, which is an important clinical surface marker for human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) transplantation. KG-1a cells were cultured in three CO₂ concentrations (1, 5 and 15 %). Cells were batch-cultured and analyzed daily for viability, size, morphology, proliferation, and apoptosis using flow cytometry. No considerable differences were noted in KG-1a cell morphological properties at all three CO₂ levels as they retained their myeloblast appearance. Calculated population doubling time increased with an increase in CO₂ concentration. Enhanced cell proliferation was seen in cells cultured in hypercapnic conditions, in contrast to significantly decreased proliferation in hypocapnic populations. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that apoptosis was significantly (p = 0.0032) delayed in hypercapnic cultures, in parallel to accelerated apoptosis in hypocapnic ones. These results, which to the best of our knowledge are novel, suggest that elevated levels of CO₂ are favored for the enhanced proliferation of bone marrow (BM) progenitor cells such as HSCs.