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Clinical observations and management of a severe equine herpesvirus type 1 outbreak with abortion and encephalomyelitis
- Walter, Jasmin, Seeh, Christoph, Fey, Kerstin, Bleul, Ulrich, Osterrieder, Nikolaus
- Acta veterinaria scandinavica 2013 v.55 no.1 pp. 19
- nose, Equid alphaherpesvirus 1, acute course, blood serum, neutralization tests, polymerase chain reaction, fetus, mares, encephalitis, viruses, mononuclear leukocytes, myeloencephalopathy
- Latent equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) infection is common in horse populations worldwide and estimated to reach a prevalence nearing 90% in some areas. The virus causes acute outbreaks of disease that are characterized by abortion and sporadic cases of myeloencephalopathy (EHM), both severe threats to equine facilities. Different strains vary in their abortigenic and neuropathogenic potential and the simultaneous occurrence of EHM and abortion is rare. In this report, we present clinical observations collected during an EHV-1 outbreak caused by a so-called “neuropathogenic” EHV-1 G₂₂₅₄/D₇₅₂ polymerase (Pol) variant, which has become more prevalent in recent years and is less frequently associated with abortions. In this outbreak with 61 clinically affected horses, 6/7 pregnant mares aborted and 8 horses developed EHM. Three abortions occurred after development of EHM symptoms. Virus detection was performed by nested PCR targeting gB from nasal swabs (11 positive), blood serum (6 positive) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (9 positive) of a total of 42 horses sampled. All 6 fetuses tested positive for EHV-1 by PCR and 4 by virus isolation. Paired serum neutralization test (SNT) on day 12 and 28 after the index case showed a significant (≥ 4-fold) increase in twelve horses (n = 42; 28.6%). This outbreak with abortions and EHM cases on a single equine facility provided a unique opportunity for the documentation of clinical disease progression as well as diagnostic procedures.