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Microbial Diversity of Type I Sourdoughs Prepared and Back‐Slopped with Wholemeal and Refined Soft (Triticum aestivum) Wheat Flours

Taccari, Manuela, Aquilanti, Lucia, Polverigiani, Serena, Osimani, Andrea, Garofalo, Cristiana, Milanović, Vesna, Clementi, Francesca
Journal of food science 2016 v.81 no.8 pp. M1996
Candida, Lactobacillus alimentarius, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc lactis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Triticum aestivum, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, bacteria, ecosystems, fermentation, organic acids and salts, pH, rheological properties, sourdough, species diversity, titratable acidity, wheat, wheat flour, yeasts
The fermentation of type I sourdough was studied for 20 d with daily back‐slopping under laboratory and artisan bakery conditions using 1 wholemeal and 2 refined soft wheat (Triticum aestivum) flours. The sourdough bacterial and yeast diversity and dynamics were investigated by plate counting and a combination of culture‐dependent and culture‐independent PCR‐DGGE approach. The pH, total titrable acidity, and concentration of key organic acids (phytic, lactic, and acetic) were measured. Three flours differed for both chemical and rheological properties. A microbial succession was observed, with the atypical sourdough species detected at day 0 (i.e. Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc holzapfelii/citreum group for bacteria and Candida silvae and Wickerhamomyces anomalus for yeasts) being progressively replaced by taxa more adapted to the sourdough ecosystem (Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus alimentarius/paralimentarius, Saccharomyces cerevisiae). In mature sourdoughs, a notably different species composition was observed. As sourdoughs propagated with the same flour at laboratory and artisan bakery level were compared, the influence of both the substrate and the propagation environment on microbial diversity was assumed.