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Citron kinase enhances ubiquitination of HIV-1 Gag protein and intracellular HIV-1 budding

Ding, Jiwei, Zhao, Jianyuan, Sun, Lei, Mi, Zeyun, Cen, Shan
Archives of virology 2016 v.161 no.9 pp. 2441-2448
Citrus medica, Human immunodeficiency virus 1, adenosinetriphosphatase, electron microscopy, leucine zipper, proteins, ubiquitin-protein ligase, ubiquitination, virion, zinc finger motif
Assembly and budding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particles is a complex process involving a number of host proteins. We have previously reported that the RhoA effector citron kinase enhances HIV-1 production. However, the underlying mechanism is not clear. In this study, we found that citron kinase interacted with HIV-1 Gag protein via its zinc finger and leucine zipper domains. Electron microscopy analysis revealed that citron kinase induced viral particle assembly in multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Citron kinase enhanced ubiquitination of HIV-1 Gag protein. Knockdown of Nedd4L, a member of the HECT ubiquitin E3 ligase family, partly decreased the ability of citron kinase to enhance HIV-1 production and reduced ubiquitination of HIV-1 Gag. Interestingly, the function of citron kinase to promote HIV-1 budding was severely impaired when endogenous ALIX was knocked down. Overexpression of the AAA-type ATPase VPS4 eliminated citron-kinase-mediated enhancement of HIV-1 production. Our results suggest that citron kinase interacts with HIV-1 Gag and enhances HIV-1 production by promoting Gag ubiquitination and inducing viral release via the MVB pathway.