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Aroma volatile analyses and 2AP characterization at various developmental stages in Basmati and Non-Basmati scented rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars

Hinge, Vidya R., Patil, Hemant B., Nadaf, Altafhusain B.
Rice 2016 v.9 no.1 pp. 38
Oryza sativa, active ingredients, betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase, biosynthesis, cultivars, filling period, flavor, flowering, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, gene expression, genes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, headspace analysis, leaves, odors, plant growth, rice, secondary metabolites, seedlings, sexual maturity, solid phase microextraction, triose-phosphate isomerase, volatile organic compounds
BACKGROUND: Rice plant growth is comprised of distinct phases, such as vegetative, reproductive, grain filling and maturity phases. In these phases synthesis and availability of primary and secondary metabolites including volatile organic compounds (VOC’s) is highly variable. In scented rice, aroma volatiles are synthesized in aerial plant parts and deposited in mature grains. There are more than 100 VOCs reported to be responsible for flavor in basmati rice. It will be interesting to keep track of aroma volatiles across the developmental stages in scented rice. Therefore, the aroma volatiles contributing in aroma with special reference to the major compound 2 acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) were screened at seven developmental stages in scented rice cultivars Basmati-370 and Ambemohar-157 along with non-scented rice cultivar IR-64 as a control following HS-SPME-GC-MS method. In addition, the expression levels of key genes and precursor levels involved in 2AP biosynthesis were studied. RESULTS: The study indicated that volatilome of scented rice cultivars is more complex than non-scented rice cultivar. N-heterocyclic class was the major distinguishing class between scented from non-scented rice. A total of 14 compounds including, 2AP were detected specifically in scented rice cultivars. Maximum number of compounds were synthesized at seedling stage and decreased gradually at reproductive and maturity. The seedling stage is an active phase of development where maximum number green leaf volatiles were synthesized which are known to act as defense molecules for protection of young plant parts. Among the 14 odor active compounds (OACs), 10 OACs were accumulated at higher concentrations significantly in scented rice cultivars and contribute in the aroma. 2AP content was highest in mature grains followed by at booting stage. Gene expression analysis revealed that reduced expression of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (badh2) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and elevated level of triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) and Δ1-Pyrolline-5-carboxylic acid synthetase (P5CS) transcript enhances 2AP accumulation. CONCLUSIONS: Most diverse compounds were synthesized at seedling stage and OACs were accumulated more at flowering followed by seedling stage. Distinct accumulation pattern exists for 2AP and other aroma volatiles at various developmental stages. The study revealed the mechanism of 2AP accumulation such that 2AP in mature grains might be transported from leaves and stem sheath and accumulation takes place in grains.