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Comparison on cellular mechanisms of iron and cadmium accumulation in rice: prospects for cultivating Fe-rich but Cd-free rice
- Gao, Lei, Chang, Jiadong, Chen, Ruijie, Li, Hubo, Lu, Hongfei, Tao, Longxing, Xiong, Jie
- Rice 2016 v.9 no.1 pp. 39
- breeding, cadmium, cultivars, fertilizers, homeostasis, humans, iron, researchers, rice, rice soils, staple foods, toxicity
- Iron (Fe) is essential for rice growth and humans consuming as their staple food but is often deficient because of insoluble Fe(III) in soil for rice growth and limited assimilation for human bodies, while cadmium (Cd) is non-essential and toxic for rice growth and humans if accumulating at high levels. Over-accumulated Cd can cause damage to human bodies. Selecting and breeding Fe-rich but Cd-free rice cultivars are ambitious, challenging and meaningful tasks for researchers. Although evidences show that the mechanisms of Fe/Cd uptake and accumulation in rice are common to some extent as a result of similar entry routes within rice, an increasing number of researchers have discovered distinct mechanisms between Fe/Cd uptake and accumulation in rice. This comprehensive review systematically elaborates and compares cellular mechanisms of Fe/Cd uptake and accumulation in rice, respectively. Mechanisms for maintaining Fe homeostasis and Cd detoxicification are also elucidated. Then, effects of different fertilizer management on Fe/Cd accumulation in rice are discussed. Finally, this review enumerates various approaches for reducing grain Cd accumulation and enhancing Fe content in rice. In summary, understanding of discrepant cellular mechanisms of Fe/Cd accumulation in rice provides guidance for cultivating Fe-fortified rice and has paved the way to develop rice that are tolerant to Cd stress, aiming at breeding Fe-rich but Cd-free rice.