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Investigation of synergistic mechanism and identification of interaction site of aldose reductase with the combination of gigantol and syringic acid for prevention of diabetic cataract

Wu, Jie, Li, Xue, Fang, Hua, Yi, Yanqun, Chen, Dan, Long, Yan, Gao, Xinxin, Wei, Xiaoyong, Chen, C-Y. Oliver
BMC complementary and alternative medicine 2016 v.16 no.1 pp. 286
Western blotting, aldehyde reductase, alternative medicine, animal models, cataract, enzyme kinetics, epithelial cells, humans, mechanism of action, mutants, proteins, rats, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, site-directed mutagenesis, sorbitol, streptozotocin, synergism, syringic acid
BACKGROUND: Gigantol and syringic acid (SA) have been shown to synergistically prevent formation of diabetic cataract (DC). However, the exact mechanism of this effect is unknown. Here, we investigate the effect of these compounds on the activity of aldose reductase (AR) and cataract formation. METHODS: We examined the synergistic anti-cataract efficacy of gigantol and SA in the high glucose- and streptozotocin -induced DC rat model; synergism was evaluated using Jin’s formula. We investigated possible mechanisms of action by measuring AR expression and activity and levels of sorbitol using enzyme kinetics, Western blot, and RT-PCR. Finally, we examined binding interaction between AR and both compounds using a combination of site-directed mutagenesis, recombinant expression of wild-type and mutant proteins, and enzyme kinetics. RESULTS: Combination treatment of gigantol and SA synergistically protected both HLECs(human lens epithelial cells) grown in vitro and DC formation in STZ-induced rats in vivo. Synergism was attributed to inhibition of AR activity, downregulation of AR expression via impaired transcription, and decreased sorbitol levels. Enzyme kinetics studies showed that the activity of an AR Asn160Ala mutant protein was significantly decreased compared to wild-type AR, confirming that Asn160 is a key residue for interaction between AR and both compounds. CONCLUSION: Combined administration of gigantol and SA synergize to enhance anti-cataract efficacy. The synergistic effect is mainly attributed to disruption of the polyol pathway and inhibition of AR activity.