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Comparative analysis of the secretomes of Schizophyllum commune and other wood-decay basidiomycetes during solid-state fermentation reveals its unique lignocellulose-degrading enzyme system

Zhu, Ning, Liu, Jiawen, Yang, Jinshui, Lin, Yujian, Yang, Yi, Ji, Lei, Li, Meng, Yuan, Hongli
Biotechnology for biofuels 2016 v.9 no.1 pp. 42
Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Jerusalem artichokes, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Schizophyllum commune, Trichoderma longibrachiatum, biodegradation, biomass, brown-rot fungi, cell walls, enzyme activity, enzymes, feedstocks, genome, genomics, hydrolysis, hydroxyl radicals, lignin, lignocellulose, models, proteins, saccharification, solid state fermentation, white-rot fungi, wood
BACKGROUND: The genome of Schizophyllum commune encodes a diverse repertoire of degradative enzymes for plant cell wall breakdown. Recent comparative genomics study suggests that this wood decayer likely has a mode of biodegradation distinct from the well-established white-rot/brown-rot models. However, much about the extracellular enzyme system secreted by S. commune during lignocellulose deconstruction remains unknown and the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, extracellular proteins of S. commune colonizing Jerusalem artichoke stalk were analyzed and compared with those of two white-rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and a brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum. RESULTS: Under solid-state fermentation (SSF) conditions, S. commune displayed considerably higher levels of hydrolytic enzyme activities in comparison with those of P. chrysosporium, C. subvermispora and G. trabeum. During biodegradation process, this fungus modified the lignin polymer in a way which was consistent with a hydroxyl radical attack, similar to that of G. trabeum. The crude enzyme cocktail derived from S. commune demonstrated superior performance over a commercial enzyme preparation from Trichoderma longibrachiatum in the hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass at low enzyme loadings. Secretomic analysis revealed that compared with three other fungi, this species produced a higher diversity of carbohydrate-degrading enzymes, especially hemicellulases and pectinases acting on polysaccharide backbones and side chains, and a larger set of enzymes potentially supporting the generation of hydroxyl radicals. In addition, multiple non-hydrolytic proteins implicated in enhancing polysaccharide accessibility were identified in the S. commune secretome, including lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) and expansin-like proteins. CONCLUSIONS: Plant lignocellulose degradation by S. commune involves a hydroxyl radical-mediated mechanism for lignocellulose modification in parallel with the synergistic system of various polysaccharide-degrading enzymes. Furthermore, the complex enzyme system of S. commune holds significant potential for application in biomass saccharification. These discoveries will help unveil the diversity of natural lignocellulose-degrading mechanisms, and advance the design of more efficient enzyme mixtures for the deconstruction of lignocellulosic feedstocks.