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Effects of dietary protein restriction on muscle fiber characteristics and mTORC1 pathway in the skeletal muscle of growing-finishing pigs
- Li, Yinghui, Li, Fengna, Wu, Li, Wei, Hongkui, Liu, Yingying, Li, Tiejun, Tan, Bie, Kong, Xiangfeng, Yao, Kang, Chen, Shuai, Wu, Fei, Duan, Yehui, Yin, Yulong
- Journal of animal science and biotechnology 2016 v.7 no.1 pp. 47
- adenosine triphosphate, average daily gain, compensatory growth, crude protein, dietary protein, energy, energy content, gene expression, gene expression regulation, genes, growth performance, longissimus muscle, low protein diet, messenger RNA, muscle fibers, myosin heavy chains, protein deposition, psoas muscles, skeletal muscle, swine, swine feeding, ubiquitin-protein ligase
- BACKGROUND: To investigate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) restriction on muscle fiber characteristics and key regulators related to protein deposition in skeletal muscle, a total of 18 growing-finishing pigs (62.30 ± 0.88 kg) were allotted to 3 groups and fed with the recommended adequate protein (AP, 16 % CP) diet, moderately restricted protein (MP, 13 % CP) diet and low protein (LP, 10 % CP) diet, respectively. The skeletal muscle of different locations in pigs, including longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM), psoas major muscle (PMM) and biceps femoris muscle (BFM) were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Results showed that growing-finishing pigs fed the MP or AP diet improved (P < 0.01) the average daily gain and feed: gain ratio compared with those fed the LP diet, and the MP diet tended to increase (P = 0.09) the weight of LDM. Moreover, the ATP content and energy charge value were varied among muscle samples from different locations of pigs fed the reduced protein diets. We also observed that pigs fed the MP diet up-regulated (P < 0.05) muscular mRNA expression of all the selected key genes, except that myosin heavy chain (MyHC) IIb, MyHC IIx, while mRNA expression of ubiquitin ligases genes was not affected by dietary CP level. Additionally, the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway was stimulated (P < 0.05) in skeletal muscle of the pigs fed the MP or AP diet compared with those fed the LP diet. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the pigs fed the MP diet could catch up to the growth performance and the LDM weight of the pigs fed the AP diet, and the underlying mechanism may be partly due to the alteration in energy status, modulation of muscle fiber characteristics and mTORC1 activation as well as its downstream effectors in skeletal muscle of different locations in growing-finishing pigs.