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Impact of Starch Gelatinization and Kernel Fissuring on the Milling Breakage Susceptibility of Parboiled Brown Rice
- Buggenhout, Joke, Brijs, Kristof, Delcour, Jan A.
- Cereal chemistry 2013 v.90 no.5 pp. 490-496
- brown rice, gelatinization, hot water treatment, milling, nutritive value, paddies, parboiling, scanning electron microscopy, seeds, soaking, starch, steaming, texture
- Parboiling, a hydrothermal treatment of paddy or brown rice, improves the texture and nutritional characteristics of cooked rice. We investigated milling breakage susceptibility of brown rice parboiled under different soaking and steaming conditions, resulting in samples with different degrees of starch gelatinization and levels of fissured grains and white bellies, that is, parboiled grains with translucent outer layers and an undesirable opaque center. The milling breakage susceptibility was 2.1% for raw rice and ranged from less than 1% up to 11.3% for parboiled rice. Parboiled samples with increased milling breakage susceptibility contained higher levels of white bellies and fissured grains. In white bellies, starch gelatinization is incomplete. Scanning electron microscopy revealed inhomogeneities in individual white bellies and fissured rice grains, indicating moisture gradients inside the grains during parboiling. Starch needs to be completely gelatinized to ensure the absence of white bellies and minimal fissured grain levels in the parboiled end product and, as a consequence, a decreased milling breakage.