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Effects of Genotype and Environment on Phenolic Acids Content and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Durum Wheat

Martini, Daniela, Taddei, Federica, Nicoletti, Isabella, Ciccoritti, Roberto, Corradini, Danilo, D'Egidio, Maria Grazia
Cereal chemistry 2014 v.91 no.4 pp. 310-317
antioxidant activity, antioxidants, crop year, durum wheat, environmental factors, genotype, genotype-environment interaction, phenolic acids
In cereals, phenolic acid (PA) content and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) may have a wide range of variability, probably because of several factors influencing the occurrence of grain antioxidants, which include genotype, environment, and their possible interactions. However, only a few studies have investigated the influence of these factors on durum wheat. In the present study, we investigated the impact of the genetic and environmental factors on the profile and content of PAs occurring as soluble free, soluble conjugated, and insoluble bound compounds, as well as on the TAC level, in three genotypes of durum wheat grown in three different Italian agroclimatic areas during two crop years. The results show that genotype, environment, and crop year have highly significant effects on TAC levels and on PA contents. In particular, TAC and free PAs are most influenced by year, whereas conjugated and bound PAs are most influenced by environment × year and genotype, respectively. Therefore, it is evidenced that genetic and environmental factors affect the antioxidant activity and the content of the three forms of PAs in durum wheat to different extents.