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Congenital diaphragmatic hernia with concurrent aplasia of the pericardium in a foal

Tăbăran, Alexandru-Flaviu, Nagy, Andras Laszlo, Cătoi, Cornel, Morar, Iancu, Tăbăran, Alexandra, Mihaiu, Marian, Bolfa, Pompei
BMC veterinary research 2015 v.11 no.1 pp. 309
Holstein, abnormal development, blood vessels, bronchi, colon, congenital abnormalities, diaphragm, dogs, females, fibrosis, foals, heart, hernia, hypertrophy, liver, necropsy, pericardium, placenta, small intestine, spleen, thorax, veterinary medicine
BACKGROUND: In veterinary medicine congenital abnormalities of the diaphragm and pericardium are rare, idiopathic malformations, being reported mainly in dogs. This report documents an unusual case of developmental defects in a foal consisting of diaphragmatic hernia concurrent with pericardial aplasia. CASE PRESENTATION: Following a normal delivery, a full term, female Friesian stillborn foal with the placenta was presented for necropsy. External morphological examination indicated a normally developed foal. At necropsy, a large oval defect (approximately 20 × 15 cm in size) was observed in the left-dorsal side of the diaphragm (left lumbocostal triangle). This defect allowed the intestinal loops, spleen and partially the liver to translocate into the thorax. The loops of the left ascending colon, including the pelvic flexure and partially the small intestine covered the cranial and dorsal posterior parts of the heart due to the complete absence of the left pericardium. The remaining pericardium presented as a white, semi-transparent strip, partially covering the right side of the heart. The left lung and the main bronchus were severely hypoplastic to approximately one-fifth the size of their right homologue. The intermediate part of the liver, containing mainly the enlarged quadrate lobe was translocated in the thorax, severely enlarged and showed marked fibrosis. Histologically in the herniated lobes we diagnosed hepatic chronic passive congestion, telangiectasia and medial hypertrophy of blood vessels. CONCLUSION: Concomitant malformation involving diaphragmatic hernia and pericardial aplasia in horses have not been previously reported. Moreover, this is the first case describing pericardial aplasia in horse.