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Atmospheric Emissions of Nitrous Oxide, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide from Different Nitrogen Fertilizers

Sistani, K. R., Jn-Baptiste, M., Lovanh, N., Cook, K. L.
Journal of environmental quality 2011 v.40 no.6 pp. 1797
Zea mays, ammonium nitrate, carbon dioxide, climate, corn, environmental factors, environmental impact, global warming, greenhouse gas emissions, greenhouse gases, growing season, methane, nitrogen fertilizers, nitrous oxide, no-tillage, poultry manure, production technology, soil, temperature, urea, urea ammonium nitrate, yields
Alternative N fertilizers that produce low greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from soil are needed to reduce the impacts of agricultural practices on global warming potential (GWP). We quantified and compared growing season fluxes of NO, CH, and CO resulting from applications of different N fertilizer sources, urea (U), urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN), ammonium nitrate (NHNO), poultry litter, and commercially available, enhanced-efficiency N fertilizers as follows: polymer-coated urea (ESN), SuperU, UAN + AgrotainPlus, and poultry litter + AgrotainPlus in a no-till corn (L.) production system. Greenhouse gas fluxes were measured during two growing seasons using static, vented chambers. The ESN delayed the NO flux peak by 3 to 4 wk compared with other N sources. No significant differences were observed in NO emissions among the enhanced-efficiency and traditional inorganic N sources, except for ESN in 2009. Cumulative growing season NO emission from poultry litter was significantly greater than from inorganic N sources. The NO loss (2-yr average) as a percentage of N applied ranged from 0.69% for SuperU to 4.5% for poultry litter. The CH–C and CO–C emissions were impacted by environmental factors, such as temperature and moisture, more than the N source. There was no significant difference in corn yield among all N sources in both years. Site specifics and climate conditions may be responsible for the differences among the results of this study and some of the previously published studies. Our results demonstrate that N fertilizer source and climate conditions need consideration when selecting N sources to reduce GHG emissions.