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Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of Laboratory and Field Mutants of Botrytis cinerea Resistant to Fludioxonil
- Ren, Weichao, Shao, Wenyong, Han, Xu, Zhou, Mingguo, Chen, Changjun
- Plant disease 2016 v.100 no.7 pp. 1414-1423
- Botrytis cinerea, adenylate cyclase, chemotaxis, cucumbers, fludioxonil, fungicide resistance, genes, glycerol, gray mold, histidine kinase, in vitro studies, mutants, mutation, mycelium, osmotic stress, plant pathogens, risk, sporulation, tomatoes, virulence, China
- Botrytis cinerea is a filamentous phytopathogen with a high risk of developing resistance to fungicides. The phenylpyrrole fungicide fludioxonil has been reported to have excellent activity against B. cinerea and increasingly has been applied to control gray mold in China. In this study, molecular and biochemical characteristics of laboratory and field mutants of B. cinerea resistant to fludioxonil has been investigated. During 2012 to 2014, B. cinerea isolates collected from Jiangsu and Shandong Provinces in China were tested in vitro for sensitivity to fungicides commonly used to suppress gray mold of cucumber and tomato. Among the 75 isolates collected from cucumber in 2013, two were highly resistant (HR) to fludioxonil. Of the 308 isolates collected from tomato in 2014, four were fludioxonil-HR. This was the first time that B. cinerea isolates HR to fludioxonil had been detected in the field. Six fludioxonil-resistant mutants were obtained in the laboratory by selection on fungicide-amended media. These mutants exhibited stable resistance to fludioxonil, as indicated by resistance factor values that ranged from 34.38 to >10,000. In comparison with fludioxonil-sensitive isolates of B. cinerea, all field and laboratory mutants showed reduced fitness, as defined by mycelial growth, sporulation, virulence, and sensitivity to osmotic stress. When treated with fludioxonil at 1 μg/ml, sensitive isolates showed increased glycerol contents in mycelium and expression levels of Bchog1, while levels in field and laboratory HR mutants increased only slightly. Sequences of the Bos1 gene of field and laboratory fludioxonil-HR mutants showed that mutations in field mutants were located in the histidine kinase, adenylyl cyclase, methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein, and phosphatase (HAMP) domains of the N-terminal region, whereas mutations in the laboratory mutants were distributed in HAMP domains or in the HATPase_c domain of the C-terminal region. These results will enhance our understanding of the resistance mechanism of B. cinerea to fludioxonil.