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Molecular Characterization of the sdhB Gene and Baseline Sensitivity to Penthiopyrad, Fluopyram, and Benzovindiflupyr in Venturia inaequalis
- Villani, Sara M., Ayer, Katrin, Cox, Kerik D.
- Plant disease 2016 v.100 no.8 pp. 1709-1716
- Venturia inaequalis, conidia, developmental stages, fungicides, genes, germ tube, growth retardation, monitoring, mutation, mycelium, orchards, phenotype, plant pathogenic fungi, succinate dehydrogenase (quinone)
- The succinate dehydrogenase inhibiting (SDHI) fungicides are a class of single-site fungicides that are increasingly important in the management of Venturia inaequalis. In this study, the baseline sensitivity of V. inaequalis to penthiopyrad, fluopyram, and benzovindiflupyr was investigated. In all, 35 to 70 isolates with no prior exposure to single-site fungicides were used to determine the effective concentration at which growth was inhibited by 50% (EC₅₀). Mean EC₅₀ values for the conidial germ tube growth stage for penthiopyrad, fluopyram, and benzovindiflupyr were 0.086, 0.176, and 0.0016 μg ml⁻¹, respectively. Linear correlation analysis revealed a significant and positive correlation between fluopyram and penthiopyrad (P ≤ 0.0001, r = 0.66) and fluopyram and benzovindiflupyr (P = 0.0014, r = 0.52). Baseline sensitivities of V. inaequalis during the mycelial growth stage were also determined for fluopyram and benzovindiflupyr. EC₅₀ values were higher for fluopyram and benzovindiflupyr during this stage compared with the conidial germ tube growth stage, with means of 0.043 and 2.02 μg ml⁻¹, respectively. In addition, the sdhB gene was characterized for three isolates of V. inaequalis collected from a research, baseline, and commercial orchard population. No common mutation sites associated with SDHI resistance in other phytopathogenic fungi were discovered in these isolates or isolates that were recovered following field applications of SDHI fungicides. The results of this study suggest that SDHI fungicides have a high level of activity during the conidial germ tube elongation stage in V. inaequalis and provide a basis for phenotypic and genotypic monitoring of shifts toward resistance of V. inaequalis populations to the SDHI fungicide class.