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Free fatty acid G-protein coupled receptor signaling in M1 skewed white adipose tissue macrophages

Vieira, Warren Antonio, Sadie-Van Gijsen, Hanél, Ferris, William Frank
Cellular and molecular life sciences 2016 v.73 no.19 pp. 3665-3676
G-protein coupled receptors, G-proteins, cytokines, free fatty acids, inflammation, lipids, macrophages, obesity, pathophysiology, phenotype, white adipose tissue
Obesity is associated with the establishment and maintenance of a low grade, chronically inflamed state in the white adipose tissue (WAT) of the body. The WAT macrophage population is a major cellular participant in this inflammatory process that significantly contributes to the pathophysiology of the disease, with the adipose depots of obese individuals, relative to lean counterparts, having an elevated number of macrophages that are skewed towards a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Alterations in the WAT lipid micro-environment, and specifically the availability of free fatty acids, are believed to contribute towards the obesity-related quantitative and functional changes observed in these cells. This review specifically addresses the involvement of the five G-protein coupled free fatty acid receptors which bind exogenous FFAs and signal in macrophages. Particular focus is placed on the involvement of these receptors in macrophage migration and cytokine production, two important aspects that modulate inflammation.