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Cutleaf groundcherry (physalis angulata) density, biomass and seed production in peanut (arachis hypogaea L.) following regrowth due to inadequate control

A. J. Price, C. D. Monks, J. A. Kelton
Peanut Science 2014 v.40 no.2 pp. 120-126
2,4-DB, Arachis hypogaea, Physalis angulata, acifluorfen, bentazon, biomass, cherries, chlorimuron ethyl, cracking, crop yield, diclosulam, field experimentation, imazapic, paraquat, peanuts, pesticide application, plant density, pruning, regrowth, seed productivity, weed control, weeds
A field experiment evaluated simulated salvage herbicide application injury and injury timing on cutleaf groundcherry density, biomass, seed production, and crop yield in a peanut system. Treatments included: 1) a non-treated control; 2) hand pruning; 3) diclosulam applied preemer- gence (PRE) alone at 27 g/ha ; 4) paraquat applied at cracking early postemergence (EPOST) at 140 g/ha followed by bentazon at 560 g/ha late postemergence (POST) alone or mixed with 5) 2,4- DB at 220 g/ha; 6) acifluorfen at 280 g/ha; 7) imazapic at 70 g/ha; or 8) chlorimuron ethyl at 9 g/ ha. Hand pruning and POST herbicide treatments were performed at 1-week intervals for four weeks beginning in June of each year. Herbicide treat- ments do not reflect current peanut herbicide recommendations but were chosen based on likely differential cutleaf groundcherry biomass and subsequent seed production. Diclosulam applied PRE provided season-long cutleaf groundcherry control; imazapic applied POST in combination with bentazon also provided excellent control. Use of bentazon alone or mixed with chlorimuron ethyl, or hand pruning resulted in similar cutleaf ground- cherry biomass and subsequent seed production compared to the non-treated control in almost all comparisons. Peanut yield reflected early-season weed interference and late season cutleaf ground- cherry control. Highest yields were recorded for diclosulam PRE and POST applications containing 2,4-DB and imazapic with 6040, 5990, and 6430 kg/ ha, respectively. When early-season weed control efforts fail to completely control cutleaf ground- cherry, it is crucial to have effective late season herbicide options for salvage treatments in order to prevent additions to the seed bank.