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First Report of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus on Stone Fruit Trees in China

Zhou, J. F., Wang, G. P., Qu, L. N., Deng, C. L., Wang, Y., Wang, L. P., Hong, N.
Plant disease 2013 v.97 no.2 pp. 290
Cherry green ring mottle virus, Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus, Plum bark necrosis stem pitting-associated virus, Prunus avium, Prunus cerasus, Prunus persica, RNA, antiserum, apricots, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, cherries, clones, flowering, fruit trees, genes, genetic databases, greenhouses, growing season, hosts, leaves, nectarines, peaches, plant diseases and disorders, plant viruses, plums, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, seedlings, sequence analysis, tissues, viruses, China, Germany
During the growing seasons of 2010 through 2012, leaf tissues from 206 stone fruit trees, including one flowering cherry, three sour cherry, six nectarine (Prunus persica L. var. nucipersica Schneider), 14 apricot, 24 plum (P. domestica L.), 41 sweet cherry, and 117 peach [P. persica (L.) Batsch] trees, grown in six provinces of China, were randomly collected and tested for the CNRMV infection by RT-PCR. Out of those sampled trees, 37 showed shot holes and vein yellowing symptoms. Total RNA was extracted from leaves using the CTAB protocol reported by Li et al. (2). The primer pair CGRMV1/CGRMV2 (1) was used to amplify a fragment of 949 bp from CNRMV genome, which includes the CP gene (804 bp). PCR products with the expected size were detected in one sweet cherry, one apricot, one peach, one plum, and two sour cherry plants. However, no correlation between PCR data and symptom expression could be found. PCR products were cloned into the vector pMD18-T (TaKaRa, Dalian, China). Three independent clones from each isolate were sequenced by Genscript Corp., Nanjing, China, and sequences were deposited in the GenBank under accession nos. JX491635, JX491636, JX491637, JX648205, and JX648206. Results of sequence analysis showed that sequences of the five CNRMV isolates shared the highest nt (99.0 to 99.6%) and aa (98.9 to 100%) similarities with a cherry isolate from Germany (GenBank Accession No. AF237816). The sequence of one isolate from a peach tree (JX648205) was divergent and shared only 84.7 to 86.1% nt and 94.4 to 95.1% aa similarities with those cp sequences. Clones intra each isolate shared more than 99% nt similarities. To confirm CNRMV infection, seedlings of peach GF 305 were graft-inoculated with bud-woods from a peach and a sweet cherry tree, which was positive to CNRMV and also two other viruses: Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV) and Plum bark necrosis stem pitting-associated virus (PBNSPaV), as tested by RT-PCR. Grafted seedlings were kept in an insectproof greenhouse and observed for symptom development. In May of the following year, some newly developed leaves of inoculated seedlings showed vein yellowing, ringspot, and shot hole symptoms. Results of Protein A sandwich (PAS)-ELISA using an antiserum raised against the recombinant CP of a CNRMV isolate (unpublished) and RT-PCR confirmed CNRMV infection in inoculated trees. In addition to CNRMV, tested seedlings were also found to be infected with CGRMV and PBNSPaV by RT-PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the occurrence of CNRMV on stone fruit trees in China, and also the first record of the CNRMV infection in peach and plum plants. Given the economic importance of its hosts and the visible symptoms of the viral disease, it is important to prevent the virus spread by using virus-tested propagation materials.References: (1) R. Li and R. Mock. J. Virol. Methods 129:162, 2005. (2) R. Li et al. J. Virol. Methods 154:48, 2008.