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Powdery Mildew Outbreaks caused by Podosphaera macularis on Hop Cultivars Possessing the Resistance Gene R6 in the Pacific Northwestern United States

Wolfenbarger, S. N., Eck, E. B., Ocamb, C. M., Probst, C., Nelson, M. E., Grove, G. G., Gent, D. H.
Plant disease 2014 v.98 no.6 pp. 852
Humulus lupulus, Podosphaera, breeding, cleistothecia, conidia, crop damage, cultivars, cultural control, disease control, disease outbreaks, fungicides, genes, greenhouses, leaves, new variety, pathogens, pedigree, planting, powdery mildew, rhizomes, virulent strains, winter, Oregon, Washington (state)
Resistant cultivars of hop (Humulus lupulus) have been grown, with the aim of helping to manage powdery mildew in the Pacific Northwest since the first report of the disease in the field in 1997 (4). A major objective of many breeding programs is development of resistance to powdery mildew, and this has generally been achieved by single resistance genes (qualitative resistance). One such gene, R6 (3), has been utilized extensively in new cultivars and has prevented epidemics of the disease in those cultivars across the Pacific Northwestern United States for approximately 15 years. In 2011, a grower in Washington State reported outbreaks of powdery mildew on cv. Apollo, which is thought to possess powdery mildew resistance derived from R6. Fungicides and cultural control measures were applied, and the grower reported no substantial crop damage from the disease. During the winter of 2012, the same grower planted rhizomes of cv. Apollo in a greenhouse in the Yakima Valley of Washington State and later found the plants to be affected by powdery mildew. Affected leaves from plants of cvs. Apollo, Newport, and Nugget (all reported [3] or assumed to possess R6 based on pedigree) grown in the same greenhouse were later provided to the authors. Conidia obtained from each affected plants were transferred to plants of the highly susceptible cv. Symphony, which is not known to contain any resistance genes. After 10 to 14 days of incubation, resultant conidia from each cultivar above (total of three isolates) were transferred to greenhouse grown plants of cvs. Nugget and Symphony and incubated at 18°C. Within 7 days, all three isolates produced powdery mildew colonies characteristic of P. macularis (2) on both cultivars. Cleistothecia did not develop in any colonies. In addition, Nugget and Symphony plants were inoculated with a field population of P. macularis originating from cultivars lacking R6 in Oregon. These inoculations on Nugget did not develop powdery mildew whereas Symphony plants did. Non-inoculated controls remained free of powdery mildew. Results were identical in two additional experiments. The sequence of the mating type idiomorph, MAT1-1, was obtained to confirm identity of the pathogen as P. macularis as described previously (1). The sequences were identical among the three isolates obtained from the greenhouse in Washington and isolates of P. macularis obtained previously from Oregon and Washington. MAT1-2 idiomorph was not detected in the isolates collected. While R6-virulent strains have been detected previously in race characterization experiments, these strains have not caused widespread epidemics of powdery mildew. The increasing prevalence of virulent strains of P. macularis and outbreaks of powdery mildew on formerly resistant cultivars necessitates changes in breeding strategies and disease management efforts to minimize damage resulting from the disease. The distribution of virulent strains of the pathogen and susceptibility of formerly resistance cultivars to powdery mildew are currently under investigation.References: (1) B. Asalfet et al. Phytopathology 103:717, 2013. (2) R. Bélanger et al. The Powdery Mildews: a Comprehensive Treatise. APS Press, St. Paul, MN, 2002. (3) P. Darby. Brew Hist. 121:94, 2005. (4) C. Ocamb et al. Plant Dis. 83:1072, 1999.