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First Report of Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum lupini on Yellow Lupin in Korea
- Han, K. S., Kim, B. S., Choi, I. Y., Park, J. H., Shin, H. D.
- Plant disease 2014 v.98 no.8 pp. 1158
- Colletotrichum, DNA primers, Lupinus luteus, aerial parts, agar, anthracnose, appressoria, conidia, disease incidence, farms, flowers, fungi, genetic databases, greenhouses, harvesting, herbaria, inoculum, internal transcribed spacers, pathogenicity, petioles, plastic bags, polymerase chain reaction, relative humidity, ribosomal DNA, runoff, stems, tissues, type collections, Australia, Austria, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Germany, Korean Peninsula, Mediterranean region, Netherlands, New Zealand, Southern European region, Ukraine, United States
- Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) is native to the Mediterranean region of southern Europe. In Korea, yellow lupins are cultivated for ornamental purposes. In May 2013, hundreds of yellow lupins that were grown in pots for 7 weeks in polyethylene-film-covered greenhouses were observed severely damaged by a previously unknown disease with about 30% disease incidence in a flower farm in Yongin City, Korea. Voucher specimens were deposited in the Korea University Herbarium (KUS). Early symptoms on petioles and stems appeared as small, slightly sunken, water-soaked, and circular spots. Lesions increased in size (4 to 12 μm in diameter), became more depressed, with a darkened central portion. As the disease progressed, affected areas sometimes girdled the stem and killed the shoot. Leaves were partly blighted, but less damaged. The darkened areas contained blackish acervuli from which masses of pale salmon-colored conidia were released in moist weather. Acervuli were circular to ellipsoid, 80 to 400 μm in diameter. Acervular setae were not observed. Conidia (n = 30) were long obclavate to oblong-elliptical, aguttulate, hyaline, and 10 to 18 × 3.6 to 5.2 μm with a length/width ratio of 2.6 to 3.6. Appressoria were single or occasionally in small dense clusters, medium brown, elliptical to round in outline with a smooth to lobate margin, and 8 to 14 × 6 to 9 μm. These characters were consistent with the description of Colletotrichum lupini (Bondar) Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous (1,3). An isolate was deposited in the Korean Agricultural Culture Collection (Accession No. KACC47254). Fungal DNA was extracted with DNeasy Plant Mini DNA Extraction Kits (Qiagen Inc., Valencia, CA). The complete internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA was amplified with the primers ITS1/ITS4 and sequenced. The resulting 545-bp sequence was deposited in GenBank (Accession No. KJ447119). The sequence showed 100% identity with sequences of C. lupini (e.g., GenBank AJ301968, JN943480, JQ948162, and KF207599). To confirm pathogenicity, inoculum was prepared by harvesting conidia with sterile distilled water from 3-week-old cultures on potato dextrose agar. A conidial suspension (2 × 10⁵ conidia/ml) was sprayed until runoff onto the aerial parts of five healthy plants. Control plants were sprayed with sterile water. The plants were covered with plastic bags to maintain a relative humidity of 100% for 48 h and then transferred to a greenhouse. Typical symptoms of necrotic spots appeared on the inoculated leaves 6 days after inoculation, and were identical to the ones observed in the field. C. lupini was re-isolated from symptomatic leaf tissues. No symptoms were observed on control plants. The pathogenicity test was repeated twice. Anthracnose associated with C. lupini on lupins has been known from Europe (Germany, Ukraine, Austria, and Netherlands), North America (Canada and the United States), South America (Bolivia and Brazil), and Oceania (Australia and New Zealand) (2,4). To our knowledge, this is the first report of C. lupini on yellow lupins in Asia as well as in Korea. The presence of C. lupini on lupins in Asia can be considered as a potentially new and serious threat to this ornamental plant.References: (1) U. Damm et al. Stud. Mycol. 73:37, 2012. (2) D. F. Farr and A. Y. Rossman. Fungal Databases. Syst. Mycol. Microbiol. Lab., Online publication, ARS, USDA, Retrieved February 17, 2014. (3) H. I. Nirenberg et al. Mycologia 94:307, 2002. (4) E. Rosskopf et al. Plant Dis. 98:161, 2014.