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Revisiting Fungicide-Based Management Guidelines for Leaf Blotch Diseases in Soft Red Winter Wheat
- Willyerd, K. T., Bradley, C. A., Chapara, V., Conley, S. P., Esker, P. D., Madden, L. V., Wise, K. A., Paul, P. A.
- Plant disease 2015 v.99 no.10 pp. 1434-1444
- data collection, disease control, guidelines, heading, leaf blotch, leaf emergence, leaves, models, odds ratio, pesticide application, prices, profitability, pyraclostrobin, risk reduction, soft red winter wheat, tebuconazole, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Wisconsin
- Standard foliar fungicide applications in wheat are usually made between flag leaf emergence (Feekes [FK] 8) and heading (FK10.5) to minimize damage to the flag leaf. However, over the last few years, new fungicide programs such as applications prior to FK8 and split half-rate applications have been implemented, although there are few data pertaining to the efficacy of these programs. Eight experiments were conducted in Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Wisconsin from 2010 to 2012 to compare new programs to standard FK8 and FK10 programs in terms of disease control and yield response. The programs evaluated consisted of single full-rate applications of 19% tebuconazole + 19% prothioconazole (Prosaro) or 23.6% pyraclostrobin (Headline) at FK5 (pseudostem strongly erected), FK8, or FK10, or split half rates at FK5 and 8 (FK5+8), plus an untreated check (CK). Leaf blotch (LB) severity and yield data were collected and random effects meta-analytical models fitted to estimate the overall log odds ratio of disease reaching the flag leaf (L¯OR) and mean yield increase (D¯) for each fungicide program relative to CK. For all programs, L¯OR was significantly different from zero (P < 0.05). Based on estimated odds ratios (OR = exp[L¯OR]), the two FK8 programs reduced the risk of LB reaching the flag leaf by 55 and 75%, compared with 62 and 69% and 67 and 70% for the two FK10 and FK5+8 programs, respectively, and only 32 and 37% for the two FK5 programs. D¯ was significantly different from zero (P ≤ 0.003) for all FK8, FK10, and FK5+8 programs, with values of 233 and 245, 175 and 220, and 175 and 187 kg ha⁻¹ for the FK10, FK5+8, and FK8 programs, respectively. Differences in mean yield response between Headline and Prosaro were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The probability of profitability was estimated for each program for a range of grain prices and fungicide application costs. All FK8, FK10, and FK5+8 programs had more than an 80% chance of resulting in a positive yield response, compared with 63 and 67% for the two FK5 programs. The chance of obtaining a yield increase of 200 kg ha⁻¹, required to offset an application cost of $36 ha⁻¹ at a grain price of $0.18 kg⁻¹, ranged from 44 to 60% for FK8, FK10 and FK5+8 programs compared with 22 and 25% for the two FK5 programs. These findings could be used to help inform fungicide application decisions for LB diseases in soft red winter wheat.