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Effects of copper deficiency and copper toxicity on organogenesis and some physiological and biochemical responses of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings grown in hydroculture

Ivanov, Yury V., Kartashov, Alexander V., Ivanova, Alexandra I., Savochkin, Yury V., Kuznetsov, Vladimir V.
Environmental science and pollution research international 2016 v.23 no.17 pp. 17332-17344
Pinus sylvestris, absorption, antioxidants, chronic exposure, copper, copper sulfate, growth retardation, hydroculture, iron, malondialdehyde, manganese, nutrient deficiencies, nutrient solutions, organogenesis, oxidative stress, root systems, roots, seedlings, superoxide dismutase, toxicity
The morphological, physiological, and biochemical parameters of 6-week-old seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were studied under deficiency (1.2 nM) and chronic exposure to copper (0.32, 1, 2.5, 5, and 10 μM CuSO₄) in hydroculture. The deposit of copper in the seed allowed the seedlings to develop under copper deficiency without visible disruption of growth. The high sensitivity of Scots pine to the toxic effects of copper was shown, which manifested as a significant inhibition of growth and development. The loss of dominance of the main root and a strong inhibition of lateral root development pointed to a lack of adaptive reorganization of the root system architecture under copper excess. A preferential accumulation of copper in the root and a minor translocation in aerial organs confirmed that Scots pine belongs to a group of plants that exclude copper. Selective impairment in the absorption of manganese was discovered, under both deficiency and excess of copper in the nutrient solution, which was independent of the degree of development of the root system. Following 10 μM CuSO₄ exposure, the absorption of manganese and iron from the nutrient solution was completely suppressed, and the development of seedlings was secured by the stock of these micronutrients in the seed. The absence of signs of oxidative stress in the seedling organs was shown under deficiency and excess of copper, as evidenced by the steady content of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals. Against this background, no changes in total superoxide dismutase activity in the organs of seedlings were revealed, and the increased content of low-molecular-weight antioxidants was observed in the roots under 1 μM and in the needles under 5 μM CuSO₄ exposures.