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The Genetic Structure, Virulence, and Fungicide Sensitivity of Fusarium fujikuroi in Taiwan

Chen, Yu-Chia, Lai, Ming-Hsin, Wu, Chia-Yi, Lin, Tsung-Chun, Cheng, An-Hsiu, Yang, Chin-Cheng, Wu, Hsin-Yuh, Chu, Sheng-Chi, Kuo, Chien-Chih, Wu, Yea-Fang, Lin, Guo-Cih, Tseng, Min-Nan, Tsai, Yi-Chen, Lin, Chun-Chi, Chen, Chi-Yu, Huang, Jenn-Wen, Lin, Heng-An, Chung, Chia-Lin
Phytopathology 2016 v.106 no.6 pp. 624-635
Fusarium fujikuroi, cities, evolution, fungicide resistance, gene flow, genetic variation, linkage disequilibrium, mating types, microsatellite repeats, prochloraz, rice, sexual reproduction, virulence, Taiwan
The rice disease bakanae, caused by Fusarium fujikuroi Nirenberg, has been present in Taiwan for over a century. To better understand the genetic diversity and structure of F. fujikuroi, a set of 16 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were newly developed and used to analyze 637 F. fujikuroi isolates collected in 14 cities or counties around Taiwan from 1996 to 2013. On the basis of Bayesian clustering, the isolates were classified into four highly differentiated clusters: cluster B likely derived from the more widespread and genetically diversified clusters A or C, and cluster D was restricted to four cities or counties and may have been introduced from unknown sources genetically distinct from clusters A, B, and C. The coexistence of both mating types (MAT1-1:MAT1-2 = 1:1.88) and the highly diversified vegetative compatibility groups (VCG) (16 VCG among the 21 assessed isolates) suggest the likelihood of sexual reproduction in the field. However, the biased mating type ratios and linkage disequilibrium in the population suggest nonrandom mating between individuals. A significant pattern of isolation by distance was also detected, which implies a geographical restricted gene flow and low dissemination ability of F. fujikuroi. Evaluation of 24 representative isolates on eight rice varieties revealed differential levels of virulence, however no clear pattern of specific variety x isolate interaction was observed. Investigations of the differences in virulence and fungicide sensitivity between 8 early isolates (1998 and 2002) and 52 recent isolates (2012) indicate the evolution of increased resistance to the fungicide prochloraz in F. fujikuroi in Taiwan.