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Inhibition of mycotoxin-producing fungi by Bacillus strains isolated from fish intestines

Veras, Flávio Fonseca, Correa, Ana Paula Folmer, Welke, Juliane Elisa, Brandelli, Adriano
International journal of food microbiology 2016 v.238 pp. 23-32
Aspergillus, Bacillus (bacteria), aflatoxin B1, antifungal properties, aquatic environment, bacteria, biological control agents, butanol, chromatography, fish, fungi, growth retardation, intestines, isomers, iturin, mycelium, ochratoxin A, pellets, spore germination, sporulation, surfactin, toxigenic strains, Amazonia, Brazil
Bacillus strains isolated from the aquatic environment of the Brazilian Amazon region were tested for their activity against mycotoxigenic fungi. All tested bacteria showed antifungal activity, inhibiting at least 7 indicator fungi. Four Bacillus strains showing promising antifungal results were subsequently evaluated for their activity in reducing mycelial growth rate, sporulation, spore germination percentage, and mycotoxin production. Bacillus sp. P1 and Bacillus sp. P11 had a remarkable antifungal effect on toxigenic fungi. Washed bacterial cell suspension of strains P1 and P11 (107CFU/ml) reduced by >70% the fungal colony diameters, including a complete inhibition of ochratoxin A (OTA) producing Aspergillus spp. Significant reduction of growth rate, sporulation and spore germination were also observed. The bacteria influenced the production of mycotoxins, causing a reduction around 99 and 97% in AFB1 and OTA concentration, respectively. Chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of lipopeptides (iturin A and surfactin isomers) in butanol extracts of cell-free supernatants and cell pellets of strains P1 and P11. Furthermore, antifungal activity of these extracts was confirmed against A. flavus A12 and A. carbonarius ITAL293, producers of AFB1 and OTA, respectively. These bacterial strains could be promising biocontrol agents against toxigenic fungi.