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Acaricidal activity of methanol extract of Acmella oleracea L. (Asteraceae) and spilanthol on Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) and Dermacentor nitens (Acari: Ixodidae)
- Cruz, Paula Barroso, Barbosa, Alan Franco, Zeringóta, Viviane, Melo, Diego, Novato, Tatiane, Fidelis, Queli Cristina, Fabri, Rodrigo Luiz, de Carvalho, Mário Geraldo, Oliveira Sabaa-Srur, Armando Ubirajara, Daemon, Erik, Monteiro, Caio Márcio Oliveira
- Veterinary parasitology 2016 v.228 pp. 137-143
- Acari, Anocentor nitens, Asteraceae, Rhipicephalus microplus, acaricidal properties, egg weight, females, hatching, larvae, maceration, methanol, methylene chloride, mortality, oviposition
- We evaluated the acaricidal activity of Acmella oleracea methanol extract and spilanthol on Rhipicephalus microplus and Dermacentor nitens. The extract was made through maceration with methanol. From this extract, a dichloromethane fraction with 99% spilanthol was obtained and tested on R. microplus larvae and engorged females and D. nitens larvae. For evaluation against larvae, the modified larval packet test was used, and both the methanol extract and dichloromethane fraction were tested at concentrations of 0.2–50mg/mL. The modified larval packet test was also used in the lethal time (LT) test, with the methanol extract at a concentration of 12.5mg/mL and the percentage mortality was assessed after 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120min and 24h. The 50% lethal time calculation (LT50) was performed in this test. The engorged female test was performed with R. microplus only, at concentrations of 25–200mg/mL for methanol extract and 2.5–20.0mg/mL for spilanthol. The methanol extract caused 100% mortality of the R. microplus and D. nitens larvae at concentrations of 3.1 and 12.5mg/mL, respectively. Spilanthol resulted in 100% mortality of R. microplus larvae at concentration of 1.6mg/mL and of D. nitens at 12.5mg/mL. In the lethal time assay using the methanol extract, the mortality rate was 100% for R. microplus and D. nitens larvae after 120min and 24h, with LT50 values of 38 and 57min, respectively. In the test of females, the egg mass weight and the hatching percentage of the groups treated with concentrations equal to or higher than 50.0mg/mL of methanol extract were significantly reduced (p<0.05), while for spilanthol, the reduction of the egg mass weight and hatching percentage occurred from concentrations of 10.0mg/mL and 2.5mg/mL, respectively. Females treated with 200.0mg/mL of extract died before starting oviposition, resulting in 100% effectiveness, while the best efficacy for spilanthol was 92.9% at a concentration of 20.0mg/mL. Thus we conclude that the methanol extract of A. oleracea and spilanthol have acaricidal activity against R. microplus and D. nitens.