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Toxicity, monitoring and biodegradation of the fungicide carbendazim
- Singh, Simranjeet, Singh, Nasib, Kumar, Vijay, Datta, Shivika, Wani, Abdul Basit, Singh, Damnita, Singh, Karan, Singh, Joginder
- Environmental chemistry letters 2016 v.14 no.3 pp. 317-329
- Aeromonas, Alternaria, Azospirillum, Brevibacillus, Nocardioides, Pseudomonas, Ralstonia, Sphingomonas, Streptomyces, Trichoderma, apoptosis, biodegradation, carbendazim, carbon, chromatography, community structure, ecosystems, electrodes, embryotoxicity, forestry, fungi, fungicides, mass spectrometry, microbial communities, mitotic spindle apparatus, monitoring, mutagenicity, nanoparticles, pollutants, soil microorganisms, soil pollution, teratogenicity, water pollution
- The increasing use of toxic pesticides is a major environmental concern. Carbendazim is a systemic fungicide having wide applications for controlling fungal diseases in agriculture, forestry and veterinary medicines. Carbendazim is a major pollutant detectable in food, soil and water. Carbendazim extensive and repeated use induces acute and delayed toxic effects on humans, invertebrates, aquatic life forms and soil microorganisms. Here, we review the pollution, non-target toxicity and microbial degradation of carbendazim for crop and veterinary purposes. We found that carbendazim causes embryotoxicity, apoptosis, teratogenicity, infertility, hepatocellular dysfunction, endocrine-disrupting effects, disruption of haematological functions, mitotic spindle abnormalities, mutagenic and aneugenic effect. We also found that carbendazim disrupted the microbial community structure in various ecosystems. The detection of carbendazim in soil and reservoir sites is performed by spectroscopic, chromatographic, voltammetric, nanoparticles, carbon electrodes and mass spectrometry. A review of the degradation of carbendazim shows that carbendazim undergoes partial to complete biodegradation in the soil and water by Azospirillum, Aeromonas, Alternaria, Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Nocardioides, Pseudomonas, Ralstonia, Rhodococcus, Sphingomonas, Streptomyces and Trichoderma.