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Immunomodulatory and Antileishmanial Activity of Phenylpropanoid Dimers Isolated from Nectandra leucantha

Costa-Silva, Thais Alves da, Grecco, Simone S., de Sousa, Fernanda S., Lago, João Henrique G., Martins, Euder G. A., Terrazas, César A., Varikuti, Sanjay, Owens, Katherine L., Beverley, Stephen M., Satoskar, Abhay R., Tempone, Andre G.
Journal of natural products 2015 v.78 no.4 pp. 653-657
Leishmania donovani, Nectandra hihua, amastigotes, antiparasitic properties, branches, cytotoxicity, fractionation, immunomodulators, inhibitory concentration 50, interleukin-10, interleukin-6, leishmaniasis, macrophages, mammals, metabolites, nitric oxide, parasites
Three phenylpropanoid dimers (1–3) including two new metabolites were isolated from the extract of the twigs of Nectandra leucantha using antileishmanial bioassay-guided fractionation. The in vitro antiparasitic activity of the isolated compounds against Leishmania donovani parasites and mammalian cytotoxicity and immunomodulatory effects were evaluated. Compounds 1–3 were effective against the intracellular amastigotes within macrophages, with IC₅₀ values of 26.7, 17.8, and 101.9 μM, respectively. The mammalian cytotoxicity, given by the 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC₅₀), was evaluated against peritoneal macrophages. Compounds 1 and 3 were not toxic up to 290 μM, whereas compound 2 demonstrated a CC₅₀ value of 111.2 μM. Compounds 1–3 also suppressed production of disease exacerbatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-10 but had minimal effect on nitric oxide production in L. donovani-infected macrophages, indicating that antileishmanial activity of these compounds is mediated via an NO-independent mechanism. Therefore, these new natural products could represent promising scaffolds for drug design studies for leishmaniasis.