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Stomatal closure induced by phytosphingosine-1-phosphate and sphingosine-1-phosphate depends on nitric oxide and pH of guard cells in Pisum sativum
- Puli, Mallikarjuna Rao, Rajsheel, Pidakala, Aswani, Vetcha, Agurla, Srinivas, Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki, Raghavendra, Agepati S.
- Planta 2016 v.244 no.4 pp. 831-841
- Pisum sativum, abscisic acid, biosynthesis, guard cells, nitric oxide, pH, peas, phospholipase D, phosphotransferases (kinases), sphingosine, stomatal movement, water stress
- MAIN CONCLUSION : Phyto-S1P and S1P induced stomatal closure in epidermis of pea (Pisum sativum) by raising the levels of NO and pH in guard cells. Phosphosphingolipids, such as phytosphingosine-1-phosphate (phyto-S1P) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), are important signaling components during drought stress. The biosynthesis of phyto-S1P or S1P is mediated by sphingosine kinases (SPHKs). Although phyto-S1P and S1P are known to be signaling components in higher plants, their ability to induce stomatal closure has been ambiguous. We evaluated in detail the effects of phyto-S1P, S1P and SPHK inhibitors on signaling events leading to stomatal closure in the epidermis of Pisum sativum. Phyto-S1P or S1P induced stomatal closure, along with a marked rise in nitric oxide (NO) and cytoplasmic pH of guard cells, as in case of ABA. Two SPHK inhibitors, DL-threo dihydrosphingosine and N’,N’-dimethylsphingosine, restricted ABA-induced stomatal closure and prevented the increase of NO or pH by ABA. Modulators of NO or pH impaired both stomatal closure and increase in NO or pH by phyto-S1P/S1P. The stomatal closure by phyto-S1P/S1P was mediated by phospholipase D and phosphatidic acid (PA). When present, PA elevated the levels of pH, but not NO of guard cells. Our results demonstrate that stomatal closure induced by phyto-S1P and S1P depends on rise in pH as well as NO of guard cells. A scheme of signaling events initiated by phyto-S1P/S1P, and converging to cause stomatal closure, is proposed.