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Application of Genomics for Understanding Plant Virus-Insect Vector Interactions and Insect Vector Control

Kaur, Navneet, Hasegawa, Daniel K., Ling, Kai-Shu, Wintermantel, William M.
Phytopathology 2016 v.106 no.10 pp. 1213-1222
Aleyrodidae, Begomovirus, Crinivirus, RNA, biochemical pathways, gene expression, gene expression regulation, genome, genomics, high-throughput nucleotide sequencing, insect control, insect vectors, metabolomics, plant diseases and disorders, plant viruses, proteomics, transcriptomics, vector control, virus transmission, viruses
The relationships between plant viruses and their vectors have evolved over the millennia, and yet, studies on viruses began <150 years ago and investigations into the virus and vector interactions even more recently. The advent of next generation sequencing, including rapid genome and transcriptome analysis, methods for evaluation of small RNAs, and the related disciplines of proteomics and metabolomics offer a significant shift in the ability to elucidate molecular mechanisms involved in virus infection and transmission by insect vectors. Genomic technologies offer an unprecedented opportunity to examine the response of insect vectors to the presence of ingested viruses through gene expression changes and altered biochemical pathways. This review focuses on the interactions between viruses and their whitefly or thrips vectors and on potential applications of genomics-driven control of the insect vectors. Recent studies have evaluated gene expression in vectors during feeding on plants infected with begomoviruses, criniviruses, and tospoviruses, which exhibit very different types of virus-vector interactions. These studies demonstrate the advantages of genomics and the potential complementary studies that rapidly advance our understanding of the biology of virus transmission by insect vectors and offer additional opportunities to design novel genetic strategies to manage insect vectors and the viruses they transmit.