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Free and Protein-Bound Maillard Reaction Products in Beer: Method Development and a Survey of Different Beer Types
- Hellwig, Michael, Witte, Sophia, Henle, Thomas
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2016 v.64 no.38 pp. 7234-7243
- Amadori products, amino acids, beers, brewing, color, dialysis, flavor, molecular weight, monitoring, surveys, wheat
- The Maillard reaction is important for beer color and flavor, but little is known about the occurrence of individual glycated amino acids in beer. Therefore, seven Maillard reaction products (MRPs), namely, fructosyllysine, maltulosyllysine, pyrraline, formyline, maltosine, MG-H1, and argpyrimidine, were synthesized and quantitated in different types of beer (Pilsner, dark, bock, wheat, and nonalcoholic beers) by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring mode through application of the standard addition method. Free MRPs were analyzed directly. A high molecular weight fraction was isolated by dialysis and hydrolyzed enzymatically prior to analysis. Maltulosyllysine was quantitated for the first time in food. The most important free MRPs in beer are fructosyllysine (6.8–27.0 mg/L) and maltulosyllysine (3.7–21.8 mg/L). Beer contains comparatively high amounts of late-stage free MRPs such as pyrraline (0.2–1.6 mg/L) and MG-H1 (0.3–2.5 mg/L). Minor amounts of formyline (4–230 μg/L), maltosine (6–56 μg/L), and argpyrimidine (0.1–4.1 μg/L) were quantitated. Maltulosyllysine was the most significant protein-bound MRP, but both maltulosyllysine and fructosyllysine represent only 15–60% of the total protein-bound lysine-derived Amadori products. Differences in the patterns of protein-bound and free individual MRPs and the ratios between them were identified, which indicate differences in their chemical, biochemical, and microbiological stabilities during the brewing process.