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Foot-and-mouth disease in a small sample of experimentally infected pronghorn (antilocapra americana)

Rhyan, Jack, McCollum, Matthew, Gidlewski, Thomas, Shalev, Moshe, Ward, Gordon, Donahue, Brenda, Arzt, Jonathan, Stenfeldt, Carolina, Mohamed, Fawzi, Nol, Pauline, Deng, Ming, Metwally, Samia, McKenna, Thomas, Salman, Mo
Journal of wildlife diseases 2016 v.52 no.4 pp. 862-873
Antilocapra americana, Foot-and-mouth disease virus, acclimation, antibodies, fever, foot-and-mouth disease, laboratory experimentation, myositis, pancreatitis, pathogenesis, pleurisy, pneumonia, polymerase chain reaction, proteins, steers, tenosynovitis, tongue, virus transmission, viruses, wildlife
There is limited information on the pathogenesis and epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in North American wildlife and none concerning pronghorn (Antilocapra americana). In an experimental study of 13 pronghorn and six steers (Bos taurus), we compared the susceptibility of pronghorn to FMD virus (FMDV) strain O, with that of cattle (Bos taurus). We also determined the potential for intra- and interspecies transmission of FMDV strain O in pronghorn and cattle, assessed the application of conventional laboratory tests in their suitability to detect FMDV infection in pronghorn, and evaluated the potential role of pronghorn as efficient long-term carriers of FMDV. After acclimation to containment at Plum Island Animal Disease Center, two pronghorn and one steer were each infected by intraepithelial tongue inoculation with 10,000 bovine tongue infective doses of FMDV, strain O1 Manisa. Inoculated animals were housed with contact animals. When contact-exposed animals developed fever they were placed in rooms with previously unexposed animals. All inoculated and exposed cattle and pronghorn developed clinical disease typical of FMD. Pronghorn developed severe foot lesions and mild to moderate oral lesions, primarily on the tongue. Duration of clinical signs in both species was 2–3 wk with foot abnormalities evident to the end of the study (51 d postexposure). Other lesions included pancreatitis, myositis of the tongue, and secondary lesions including pleuritis, pneumonia, decubital ulcers, and tenosynovitis. Virus transmission occurred between pronghorn, from cattle to pronghorn, and from pronghorn to cattle. Conventional laboratory tests detected virus and antibodies against nonstructural and structural FMDV proteins in pronghorn and cattle. Virus was present in some animals for 1 wk but was not detectable by virus isolation or PCR at 3 wk postinfection or afterward.