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Laboratory evaluation of traditionally used plant-based insect repellent against the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae)

Karunamoorthi, Kaliyaperumal, Ilango, Kandan, Murugan, Kadarkarai
Parasitology research 2010 v.106 no.5 pp. 1217-1223
Anopheles arabiensis, Cymbopogon citratus, adverse effects, common names, disease vectors, insect repellents, languages, malaria, risk
A laboratory study was carried out to evaluate the repellent efficacy of a methanol-leaf extract of Ethiopian traditionally used insect repellent plant viz., Lomi sar [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. (Poaceae)] against Anopheles arabiensis at four different concentrations viz., 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mg/cm². The percentage protection in relation to the dose method was performed. C. citratus extract has shown various degrees of repellency impact against A. arabiensis. It provided the maximum total percentage protection of 78.83% at 2.5 mg/cm² and followed 68.06% at 2.0 mg/cm² for 12 h. All four tested concentrations of C. citratus extract offered significant protection and Student's t test results shows statistically significant (p value = 0.001) [1.0 mg/cm² (t = 22.89; df = 4); 1.5 mg/cm² (t = 24.03; df = 4); 2.0 mg/cm² (t = 36.92; df = 4); 2.5 mg/cm² (t = 22.31; df = 4)] difference between treated and control groups. The result suggests that it could serve as a potent insect repellent against vectors of disease. Globally, C. citratus is renowned for its therapeutic values. Above and beyond, due to its user- as well as environmental-friendly nature, it should be promoted among the marginalized populations in order to reduce man-vector contact. In addition, this appropriate strategy affords the opportunity to minimize chemical repellent usage and the risks associated with adverse side effects. At the end of the day, traditionally used plant-based insect repellents could be viable safer alternative sources for chemical insect repellents.