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Pre-assembled Nuclear Pores Insert into the Nuclear Envelope during Early Development

Hampoelz, Bernhard, Mackmull, Marie-Therese, Machado, Pedro, Ronchi, Paolo, Bui, Khanh Huy, Schieber, Nicole, Santarella-Mellwig, Rachel, Necakov, Aleksandar, Andrés-Pons, Amparo, Philippe, Jean Marc, Lecuit, Thomas, Schwab, Yannick, Beck, Martin
Cell 2016 v.166 pp. 664-678
Drosophila, blastoderm, early development, endoplasmic reticulum, gastrulation, models, nuclear membrane, nucleocytoplasmic transport, nucleoporins, oocytes, permeability, topology
Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) span the nuclear envelope (NE) and mediate nucleocytoplasmic transport. In metazoan oocytes and early embryos, NPCs reside not only within the NE, but also at some endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane sheets, termed annulate lamellae (AL). Although a role for AL as NPC storage pools has been discussed, it remains controversial whether and how they contribute to the NPC density at the NE. Here, we show that AL insert into the NE as the ER feeds rapid nuclear expansion in Drosophila blastoderm embryos. We demonstrate that NPCs within AL resemble pore scaffolds that mature only upon insertion into the NE. We delineate a topological model in which NE openings are critical for AL uptake that nevertheless occurs without compromising the permeability barrier of the NE. We finally show that this unanticipated mode of pore insertion is developmentally regulated and operates prior to gastrulation.